ESRI Working Paper

Blockchain electricity trading using tokenised power delivery contracts

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December 20, 2019
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This paper proposes a new mechanism for forward selling renewable electricity generation. In this transactive framework, a wind or solar farm may directly sell to consumers a claim on their future power output in the form of nonfungible blockchain tokens. Using the flexibility of smart contract code, which executes irrevocably on a blockchain, the realised generation levels will offset the token holders’ electricity consumption in near real-time. To elucidate the flexibility offered by such smart contracts, two ways of structuring these power delivery instruments are considered: firstly, an exotic tranched system, where more senior tokens holders enjoy priority claims on power, as compared against a simpler pro-rata scheme, where the realised output of a generator is equally apportioned between token holders. A notional market simulation is provided to explore whether, for instance, consumers could exploit the flatter power delivery profiles of more senior tranches to better schedule their responsive demands.